How to grow Wheat
  • May 24, 2023
  • 0

Wheat is one of the most widely cultivated cereal crops around the world and plays a vital role in global food production. It is a versatile grain that can be processed into various products such as flour, bread, pasta, and more. Growing wheat can be a rewarding experience, whether you have a large farm or a small backyard garden.

This guide aims to provide you with a detailed step-by-step process on how to grow wheat successfully, from selecting the right variety to harvesting the grains. By following these guidelines, you can cultivate your own wheat crop and enjoy the satisfaction of producing your own food.

Variety Selection

Understanding Wheat Varieties:

  • Hard Red Wheat: Suitable for bread-making due to its high protein content.
  • Soft Red Wheat: Ideal for pastries, cakes, and cookies.
  • Hard White Wheat: Excellent for baking bread, especially for those who prefer a milder flavor.
  • Soft White Wheat: Preferred for pastries, cakes, and flatbreads.

Considering Climate and Region:

  • Choose a variety that is well-adapted to your local climate and region.
  • Consult with local agricultural extension services or farmers to determine the best wheat varieties for your area.

Soil Preparation

Soil Testing:

  • Conduct a soil test to determine the pH level, nutrient content, and overall soil health.
  • Wheat prefers a slightly acidic to neutral soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5.

Soil Conditioning:

  • Add organic matter such as compost or well-rotted manure to improve soil structure and fertility.
  • Incorporate the organic matter into the soil using a tiller or garden fork.

Weed Control:

  • Clear the area of weeds and grasses before planting.
  • Consider using a pre-emergent herbicide to prevent weed growth.

Planting Process


  • Plant wheat in the fall, several weeks before the first frost date.
  • The exact timing depends on your region, but generally, wheat is planted from late September to early November.

Seedbed Preparation:

  • Use a rake or garden tiller to prepare a fine, level seedbed.
  • Remove any large clumps or debris that could interfere with planting.

Seeding Rate and Depth:

  • Consult the seed supplier or local agricultural experts for recommended seeding rates.
  • Plant the wheat seeds at a depth of 1 to 1.5 inches, depending on soil moisture.

Row Spacing:

  • Optimal row spacing varies depending on the wheat variety and equipment used.
  • Generally, a row spacing of 6 to 10 inches is suitable for most wheat varieties.

Crop Maintenance


  • Monitor soil moisture regularly and provide irrigation when necessary.
  • Wheat requires consistent moisture during the growing season, particularly during the critical stages of tillering and grain filling.


  • Apply nitrogen-based fertilizers according to soil test recommendations and local agricultural guidelines.
  • Split the fertilizer application, with the first dose before planting and subsequent applications during the growing season.

Weed and Pest Control:

  • Regularly inspect the wheat field for signs of weeds, pests, and diseases.
  • Use appropriate herbicides, insecticides, or fungicides as recommended by local agricultural experts.

Disease Management:

  • Implement preventive measures such as crop rotation, selecting disease-resistant varieties, and proper field sanitation.
  • Consult local agricultural experts for specific recommendations on disease management in your region.

Harvesting and Storage

Determining Harvest Time:

  • Monitor the wheat plants for maturity indicators such as color change, drying of stems, and hardening of grains.
  • Perform a “kernel milk” or “kernel dough” test by pressing a grain between your fingernails to check the moisture content.
  • Harvest when the grains are hard and dry, typically with 20-25% moisture content.

Harvesting Methods:

  • Small-scale growers can use a sickle or scythe to cut the wheat stalks close to the ground.
  • For larger fields, a combined harvester equipped with a cutting header is the most efficient option.


  • Threshing separates the grains from the chaff and straw.
  • Traditional methods include using a flail or beating the dried stalks against a hard surface.
  • Mechanical threshers or combine harvesters can also perform this task.


  • Winnowing helps remove the lighter chaff from the heavier wheat grains.
  • Stand in a breezy area and pour the threshed mixture from one container to another, allowing the wind to blow away the chaff.


  • Use a sieve or screen to remove any remaining debris or impurities from the wheat grains.
  • This step ensures a clean and high-quality harvest.


  • Store the harvested wheat in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated place to prevent moisture and pest damage.
  • Use clean and moisture-resistant containers such as bins or silos.
  • Regularly inspect the stored wheat for signs of moisture, pests, or mold, and take necessary measures to address any issues.

Additional Tips for Successful Wheat Cultivation

Crop Rotation:

  • Practice crop rotation to prevent the buildup of pests and diseases.
  • Avoid planting wheat in the same area for consecutive seasons and rotate with other crops such as legumes or corn.


  • Apply a layer of organic mulch around the wheat plants to conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and maintain soil temperature.

Monitoring and Record-Keeping:

  • Keep track of key factors such as planting date, fertilization schedules, irrigation, and pest/disease management.
  • Regular monitoring and record-keeping will help identify patterns and make informed decisions in future wheat cultivation.

Continuous Learning:

  • Stay updated with the latest agricultural practices, research findings, and local recommendations related to wheat cultivation.
  • Participate in workshops, seminars, or online forums to exchange knowledge and experiences with fellow growers.


Growing wheat can be a fulfilling endeavor that allows you to cultivate a staple crop and experience the satisfaction of producing your own food. By selecting the appropriate wheat variety, preparing the soil adequately, following proper planting techniques, and implementing effective crop maintenance practices, you can optimize your chances of a successful wheat harvest.

Remember to pay attention to harvesting techniques and ensure proper storage to maintain the quality of your grains. With dedication, knowledge, and continuous learning, you can enjoy the rewards of growing your own wheat and contributing to the food security of your household or community.

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